Running through the Central Belt of Scotland, 55.967 N, 4.067 W
Emperor Antoninus Pius ordered for a new wall to be built in the north as a response to pressure from the Caledonians. This new wall was to mark the northernmost territory of the empire and serve as the replacement to Hadrian's Wall.
Approximate Year of Completion
about 154 AD
Duration of construction
142 AD-154 AD
It spanned approximately 63 kilometers (39 miles) and was about 3 meters (10 feet) high and 5 meters (16 feet) wide. The wall was protected by 16 forts with small fortlets between them; troop movement was facilitated by a road linking all the sites known
as the Military Way. A visual of the forts and fortlets is provided below.
Th wall was completely a turf wall built on a stone foundation. “the Wall appears to have been constructed using whatever materials were to hand, and Breeze (1982) has suggested that the term ‘Earth Wall’ would be more accurate..”
-T. Willmot. This is actually on Hadrians Wall, but the construction was still done in the traditional Roman fashion. I could not find any article specifically about the turf in this wall. The wall was also fortified by little holes nicknamed "lilies."
These were used to inhibit enemy cavalry and can be seen below.
Other significant comments
The wall was abandoned only 8 years after completion, and the garrisons relocated back to Hadrian's Wall. In 208 AD Emperor Septimius Severus re-established legions at the wall and ordered repairs; this has led to the wall being referred to as the Severan Wall. The occupation ended a few years later, and the wall was never fortified again. Most of the wall and its associated fortifications have been destroyed over time, but some remains are still visible.
Breeze, D. J. (2004). The Antonine Wall, Berlin LTD, Berlin.
Wilmott, T. “The Turf Wall.” University of Durham, <https://www.dur.ac.uk/resources/archaeological.services/research_training/hadrianswall_research_framework/project_documents/TurfWall.pdf> (Apr. 30, 2015).
Hanson, W. S. and Maxwell, G. S. (1983). Rome’s North-West Frontier, the Antonine Wall, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Keppie, Lawrence (1990). Roman Distance Slabs from the Antonine Wall, Hungarian Museum, Glasgow.
Robertson, Anne S. (1990). The Antonine Wall: a Handbook of the Surviving Remains, Glasgow Archaeological Society, Glasgow.