Russian scientist, Andrew Kolmogorov’s theory of turbulence has been widely accepted as a basic tenet of fluid dynamic theory since its introduction in 1941. New research out of the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) is causing physicists to rethink turbulence.
In the midst of a four year drought, California’s limited snowpack promises another dry year in 2015. Mountain temperatures, which claim the hottest October - January period in 120 years, have prevented a snowpack formation. This snowpack typically provides one third of California’s water through meltwater each spring. The statewide snowpack currently holds only one-twentieth of its multidecade average.
A collaboration between researchers at the University of West England Bristol (UWE Bristol) and Oxfam, an international organization dedicated to fighting poverty, is proving that urine might be an invaluable source of electricity in refugee camps and other impoverished areas. For decades, utilities in developed countries have derived energy from the methane found wastewater, but in areas where such complex treatment schemes are not possible, simple solutions such as a “pee-power” toilet could offer an inexpensive and desperately needed source of energy.