There are Roman concrete breakwaters built more than 1,500 years ago that still stand strong, maybe even stronger now than they were back then. A team of scientists from USA, China and Italy have discovered the recipe of the Roman concrete: a mix of volcanic ash, lime (calcium oxide), seawater and lumps of volcanic rock. Their findings could help today's builders construct durable marine structures.
Simulations assessing how the system would have responded to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake show that a tsunami alarm would have been raised in 7 minutes or less, thus might had saved many of the 22,000 killed by the massive tsunami that followed the earthquake.
The 15-million city is situated very close to the so-called North Anatolian Fault Zone which runs just outside the city, below the Marmara Sea. Scientists appreciate that an earthquake of magnitude M7 or greater will hit region in the coming years.
Led by Jenny Collier of Imperial College London, a team of scientists will be taking measurements from the seafloor of the Caribbean islands, trying to gain some early warning clues about the region's tectonic activity.