How to implement on the ground the main components (start, middle, end points) of a circular curve with known radius R, tangent to two main alignments E1 and E2, by occupying node K (intersecting point of the two main tangents).
Determine the length between two points A and B by measuring two side lengths from a third occupied point C and the included angle c. Points A and B are visible from point C, but interrupted between each other.
Determine the coordinates of an unknown point M (impossible to occupy) visible from two (2) previously surveyed reference stations A, B of a control baseline, only by observing angles α and β subtended by lines of sight from stations A and B to the intersected point M. Intersection technique is commonly implemented when the unknown point to be observed is inaccessible during a survey.
Calculate the maximum offset value ΔΖmax of an extrusion or intrusion detail from a reference plane (mainly flat object) so that the maximum error on the image plane due to radial shift does not exceed a certain limit Δρmax. (optical axis perpendicular to object plane)